LoTi Profiler Guide

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© 2005 Learning Quest, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Contents

Chapter One: LoTi Profiler Introduction

We are pleased to introduce LoTi Profiler - the latest addition to the online LoTi (Level of Teaching Innovation) Questionnaire. LoTi Profiler is an online administrative management tool for managing and reporting data from the online LoTi Questionnaire. LoTi Profiler provides a "real- time", easy-to-use suite of management options to track every aspect of your group's interaction with the online LoTi Questionnaire. Chapter One explains how to access LoTi Profiler, how to view data in LoTi Profiler, and how to utilize some of the key features.


Accessing LoTi Profiler

There are three ways to access LoTi Profiler:

  1. You can access the login page of LoTi Profiler from the LoTi Lounge (http://www.lotilounge.com/) by simply clicking on the LoTi Profiler button.
  2. You can access the login page of LoTi Profiler via direct URL at http://lotiprofiler.lotilounge.com/.
  3. If you are signed into the LoTi Lounge and your group has access to LoTi Profiler, you can click on the link for LoTi Profiler in the "For Administrators Only" section of the main LoTi Lounge menu to access the LoTi Profiler login page.

Signing in to LoTi Profiler

At the LoTi Profiler login page, you must provide some group information to login so that LoTi Profiler can load an up-to-the-minute summary of your group's specific LoTi Questionnaire data. When your group was established, the group representative was sent an email listing both your Group Identification number (Group ID) and the LoTi Lounge Administrative Password for your group. Please contact your group representative if you wish to have access to LoTi Profiler and have not been given the Administrative Password. To sign in:

  1. Enter your established Group Identification number in the "Group ID" field.
  2. Enter your established Administrative Password in the "Password" field.
  3. Click on the "Submit" button to login. You will be presented with a "Please Wait" screen while your group's specific results are loaded into LoTi Profiler.

Viewing Data in LoTi Profiler

Once your data has been retrieved, you will enter LoTi Profiler at the Data Summary table. This table summarizes the LoTi, PCU, and CIP data for your whole group according to the currently open survey period. If your group has multiple organizations or multiple survey periods, you can reload the data according to the desired selection using the pop-up lists at the top of the screen.

Viewing Data from a Specific Organization

If you are part of a group with multiple organizations, LoTi Profiler defaults to loading the entire group. However, you have the option to load only the data from a specific organization or smaller set of organizations in your group. Each group is made up of a hierarchical list of organizations, listing organizations from the highest level of organization to the lowest level of organization (e.g., state department of education, district, school). Most groups are composed of specific school districts containing a list of schools in the district, but some groups are collections of school districts and schools accessible at the regional office level. The list of organizations that are "children" to the "parent" organization will always be listed on the pop-up list just below the name of the "parent" organization at the top of the page. In this example, Pleasant School District is the "parent" organization, and the pop-up list contains a list of schools in Pleasant School District.

To view detailed data from only a specific organization:

  1. Select the desired organization from the pop-up list below the name of the "parent" organization.
  2. To navigate back to the "parent" organization (or back up the hierarchical organization list), simply click on the upward arrow button (Image:uparrow.png) to the right of the "child" organization name.

Note: If your group involves several levels of organizations, you may have to make more than one selection from the pop-up list to get to the specific organization you're looking for. The pop-up list will refresh with a new list of "child" organizations each time a new "parent" organization is selected.

Viewing Data From a Specific Survey Period

If data from your group involves multiple survey periods, you have the option of signing in to LoTi Profiler using either your main Group ID or the specific Survey Period ID of the surveys for which you intend to view or report data. If you sign in to LoTi Profiler using your primary Group ID, all survey periods associated with your group will be available on the Survey Period pop-up list at the top of the page. The currently available survey period will automatically be loaded. If you sign in to LoTi Profiler using a specific survey period identifier, then only the data from the specified survey period will be available and loaded upon signing in.

To view detailed data from a survey period other than the one that is currently loaded:

  1. Select the desired survey period from the pop-up list just above the currently loaded survey period dates.

Note: Since data is loaded for every organization involved with a survey period at once, you will be presented with the "Please wait..." screen while switching between survey periods so that LoTi Profiler has a chance to reload the data from each organization according to the newly selected survey period.

LoTi Profiler Special Features

LoTi Profiler was designed for survey administrators to quickly and easily view, manage, and print up-to-the-minute results from the LoTi Questionnaire at any time your LoTi Lounge account is active. Provided below is a summary of some of the features embedded in LoTi Profiler.


Summarize Data Menu Overview

The Summarize Data Menu offers a convenient Data Summary table that lists the number of LoTi Questionnaire surveys that have been completed as well as the Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi), Personal Computer Use (PCU), and Current Instructional Practices (CIP) scores for each organization in your group. This allows you to quickly monitor your entire group or the number of participants from each building in "real-time" with one easy glance! When you login to LoTi Profiler, the Data Summary table is the first thing you see.

Also available on the Summarize Data Menu is the User List table. The User List table offers a list view of specific users involved with the LoTi Questionnaire to date. The table offers six categories and can be sorted according to any of those categories as a convenient means of locating users. The categories include: User ID, Email Address, School Name, Group ID, Survey Completion, and Date of Last Survey Completed. Chapter Two offers detailed information on the Summarize Data Menu.

Review Group Data Menu Overview

The Review Group Data Menu offers up-to-the-minute results of your group's Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi) data, Personal Computer Use (PCU) data, Current Instructional Practices (CIP) data, Survey Type data, or data from any of your group's self-selected demographic questions in both graph and table formats. This provides a simple means of checking your group's results graphically or getting a quick percentage count using the result table. Chapter Three offers detailed information on the Review Group Data Menu.

Generate Reports Menu Overview

The Generate Reports Menu lets you easily create customized LoTi Technology Use Profiles of your group's data at any time your LoTi Lounge account is open. You can generate LoTi Technology Use Profile reports for single schools, entire school districts, or your entire group either individually (one at a time) or for the whole group at once. You can also get LoTi Technology Use Profile reports for previous survey periods or including specifically selected demographic data. When you click on the LoTi Technology Use Profiles table, the default choices selected will produce the standard LoTi Technology Use Profile that you are used to receiving at the end of your group's surveying session. Chapter Four offers detailed information on the Generate Reports Menu.

Chapter Two: Summarize Data Menu

The Summarize Data Menu was designed to provide a "quick-view" summary of data so that survey administrators accessing LoTi Profiler can quickly and simply glance at their overall group data in the Data Summary table or easily manage individual users who have started the LoTi Questionnaire process in the User List table. Using the Summarize Data Menu is as easy as clicking on the data summary list you wish to view! Chapter Two describes the specific items on the Summarize Data Menu.

Data Summary Table

The Data Summary table provides a group summary list of the number of LoTi Questionnaire surveys that have been completed as well as the Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi), Personal Computer Use (PCU), and Current Instructional Practices (CIP) scores for each organization in your group. The Data Summary table defaults to displaying the median LoTi, PCU, and CIP scores for each organization in "real-time" according to the currently-loaded organization(s) and currently-loaded survey period.

Viewing the Data Summary Table for a Specific Organization

If you are part of a group with multiple organizations, LoTi Profiler defaults to loading the Data Summary table for the entire group. However, you have the option to load only the data from a specific organization or smaller set of organizations in your group. For more information on how data is organized, visit section 1.3 of this manual, Viewing Data in LoTi Profiler. To view the Data Summary table for a specific organization: 1. Select the desired organization from the pop-up list below the name of the "parent" organization.

Note: If your group involves several levels of organizations, you may have to make more than one selection from the pop-up list to locate the desired organization. The pop-up list will refresh with a new list of "child" organizations each time a new "parent" organization is selected.

Viewing the Data Summary Table for a Specific Survey Period

If you are part of a group involved with multiple survey periods, you have the option to view the Data Summary Table from any of your group's available survey periods. This feature provides a convenient way for you to view current data and compare it to previous data. For more information on how survey period data is loaded when signing in to LoTi Profiler, visit section 1.3 of this manual, Viewing Data in LoTi Profiler.

To view the Data Summary table from a specific survey period other than the one that is loaded:

  1. Select the desired survey period from the pop-up list just above the currently-loaded survey period dates.

Note: Since data is loaded for every organization involved with a survey period at once, you will be presented with the "Please wait..." screen while switching between survey periods so that LoTi Profiler has a chance to reload the data from each organization according to the newly-selected survey period.

User List Table

The User List table automatically displays a list view of specific users who have completed the LoTi Questionnaire to date according to the currently-loaded data. For more information on how to load and view specific sets of data, visit section 1.3 of this manual, Viewing Data in LoTi Profiler.

The User List displays all users from the currently-loaded group that have completed a LoTi Questionnaire as part of the current survey period. This provides an easy way for survey administrators to track which particpants have completed the survey to date each time they login to LoTi Profiler.

One of the most convenient features that the User List table offers is the ability to send out "LoTi Reminder" emails to participants. This feature allows survey administrators an simple way to communicate User ID and Password information to participants in a secure environment. Using this feature, LoTi Profiler will send an email directly to the desired participants using the email address listed.

To use the User List table for sending out LoTi Reminders

  1. Before sending a LoTi Reminder email, be sure each participant's active email address is listed. If you encounter an email address that is listed incorrectly, click on the email address link to change it. A dialog box will appear allowing you to edit the email address. When you have corrected the email address, click "Submit" to save the changes to the LoTi database.
  2. To send a LoTi Reminder email to an individual user, click on the email icon (Image:mailicon.png) next to the desired participant's email address.
  3. To send a LoTi Reminder email to a group of users at once, make sure that the desired group of users are listed on the User List according the the organization and survey period choices at the top of the page. Then, click on the link at the bottom of the list that says "Send User ID Reminder Email to All Users". After clicking on the link, a confirmation message will appear that confi rms the number of emails that will be sent and the return address that will be listed when participants receive the email.

Note: If a LoTi Reminder email is sent to an email address that is no longer valid, the LoTi Profiler mail delivery system will return a "bounced" email to the group representative according to the return email address listed. This is to inform the group representative of all invalid email addresses as participants with invalid email addresses will not receive their user information.

The User List table offers six categories and can be sorted according to any of those categories as a convenient means of locating users. The categories include: User ID, Email Address, School Name, Group ID, Survey Completion, and Date of Last Survey Completed.

To sort the list according to one of the categories (e.g., by Email Address)

  1. Click on the Sort icon (Image:sorticon.png) listed next to the category title by which you wish to sort users.

In this example, the User List table has been sorted by Email Address.

Note: The User List table may be several pages long based on the number of users involved. The table shows 40 users per page by default. You can view more users per page or view other pages using the navigation tools at the top of the table.

Chapter Three: Review Group Data Menu

The Review Group Data Menu was designed to provide a simple means of expeditiously and efficiently accessing very specific data on your group in "real-time". Each item on the Review Group Data Menu is specific to the customized settings defined for your group and can be viewed in graphic format to perform a swift visual check of the data or in table format to obtain specific numbers or percentages tied to each category of data. From this menu, you can review Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi) data, Personal Computer Use (PCU) data, Current Instructional Practices (CIP) data, Survey Type data, or data from any of your group's self-selected demographic questions. Chapter Three highlights the specific items on the Review Group Data Menu.

Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi) Results

The LoTi link on the Review Group Data Menu loads available Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi) data according to the currently-selected organization and survey period. The Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) profi le approximates the degree to which each participant either supports or implements the instructional uses of technology in a classroom setting.

LoTi data will automatically load in Graph format. The LoTi graph is a bar graph showing the number of participants at each LoTi Level according to the LoTi Framework (section 3.1.1). Both the median and mode LoTi results are reported below the graph.

To review your group's available LoTi results as a graph:

  1. Click on the LoTi link from the Review Group Data Menu to view the data as a graph.

You may need more specific data than is available by simply reviewing a bar graph. For this instance, LoTi data is also available in Table format. The LoTi table shows the exact number of participants as well as the percentage of participants at each LoTi Level according to the LoTi Framework (section 3.1.1).

To review your group's available LoTi results as a table:

  1. Click on the Table tab located to the right of the Graph tab listed under the name of the selected organization to view the data as a table.

Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi) Framework

  • Level O - Non-Use: A Level 0 (Non-Use) implies there is a perceived lack of access to technology-based tools (e.g., computers) or a lack of time to pursue electronic technology implementation. Existing technology is predominately text-based (e.g., ditto sheets, chalkboard, overhead projector).
  • Level 1 - Awareness: A Level 1 (Awareness) implies that the use of technology-based tools is either (1) one step removed from the classroom teacher (e.g., integrated learning system labs, special computer-based pull-out programs, computer literacy classes, central word processing labs), (2) used almost exclusively by the classroom teacher for classroom and/or curriculum management tasks (e.g., taking attendance, using grade book programs, accessing email, retrieving lesson plans from a curriculum management system or the internet) and/or (3) used to embellish or enhance teacher-directed lessons or lectures (e.g., multimedia presentations).
  • Level 2 - Exploration: A Level 2 (Exploration) implies that technology-based tools supplement the existing instructional program (e.g., tutorials, educational games, basic skill applications) or complement selected multimedia and/or web-based projects (e.g., internet-based research papers, informational multimedia presentations) at the knowledge/ comprehension level. The electronic technology is employed either as extension activities, enrichment exercises, or technology-based tools and generally reinforces lower cognitive skill development relating to the content under investigation.
  • Level 3 - Infusion: A Level 3 (Infusion) implies that technology-based tools including databases, spreadsheet and graphing packages, multimedia and desktop publishing applications, and internet use complement selected instructional events (e.g., field investigation using spreadsheets/graphs to analyze results from local water quality samples) or multimedia/web-based projects at the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation levels. Though the learning activity may or may not be perceived as authentic by the student, emphasis is, nonetheless, placed on higher levels of cognitive processing and in-depth treatment of the content using a variety of thinking skill strategies (e.g., problem-solving, decision-making, reflective thinking, experimentation, scientific inquiry).
  • Level 4a - Integration (Mechanical): A Level 4a (Integration: Mechanical) implies that technology-based tools are integrated in a mechanical manner that provides rich context for students’ understanding of the pertinent concepts, themes, and processes. Heavy reliance is placed on prepackaged materials and/or outside resources (e.g., assistance from other colleagues), and/or interventions (e.g., professional development workshops) that aid the teacher in the daily management of their operational curriculum. Technology (e.g., multimedia, telecommunications, databases, spreadsheets, word processing) is perceived as a tool to identify and solve authentic problems as perceived by the students relating to an overall theme/concept. Emphasis is placed on student action and on issues resolution that require higher levels of student cognitive processing and in-depth examination of the content.
  • Level 4b - Integration (Routine): A Level 4b (Integration: Routine) implies that technology- based tools are integrated in a routine manner that provides rich context for students’ understanding of the pertinent concepts, themes, and processes. At this level, teachers can readily design and implement learning experiences (e.g., units of instruction) that empower students to identify and solve authentic problems relating to an overall theme/concept using the available technology (e.g., multimedia applications, internet, databases, spreadsheets, word processing) with little or no outside assistance. Emphasis is again placed on student action and on issues resolution that require higher levels of student cognitive processing and in-depth examination of the content.
  • Level 5 - Expansion: A Level 5 (Expansion) implies that technology access is extended beyond the classroom. Classroom teachers actively elicit technology applications and networking from other schools, business enterprises, governmental agencies (e.g., contacting NASA to establish a link to an orbiting space shuttle via internet), research institutions, and universities to expand student experiences directed at problem-solving,issues resolution, and student activism surrounding a major theme/concept. The complexity and sophistication of the technology-based tools used in the learning environment are now commensurate with (1) the diversity, inventiveness, and spontaneity of the teacher’s experiential-based approach to teaching and learning and (2) the students’ level of complex thinking (e.g., analysis, synthesis, evaluation) and in-depth understanding of the content experienced in the classroom.
  • Level 6 - Refinement: A Level 6 (Refinement) implies that technology is perceived as a process, product (e.g., invention, patent, new software design), and/or tool for students to find solutions related to an indentified “real-world” problem or issue of significance to them. At this level, there is no longer a division between instruction and technology use in the classroom. Technology provides a seamless medium for information queries, problem- solving, and/or product development. Students have ready access to and a complete understanding of a vast array of technology-based tools to accomplish any particular task at school. The instructional curriculum is entirely learner-based. The content emerges based on the needs of the learner according to his/her interests, needs, and/or aspirations and is supported by unlimited access to the most current computer applications and infrastructure available.

Personal Computer User (PCU) Results

The PCU link on the Review Group Data Menu loads available Personal Computer Use (PCU) data according to the currently-selected organization and survey period.

The Personal Computer Use (PCU) profile addresses each participant’s comfort and proficiency level with using computers (e.g., troubleshooting simple hardware problems, using multimedia applications) at home or in the workplace.

PCU data will automatically load in Graph format.

The PCU graph is a bar graph showing the number of participants at each PCU Intensity Level according to the PCU Framework (section 3.2.1). Both the median and mode PCU results are reported below the graph.

To review your group's available PCU results as a graph:

  1. Click on the PCU link from the Review Group Data Menu to view the data as a graph. You may need more specifi c data than is available by simply reviewing a bar graph.

For this instance, PCU data is also available in Table format. The PCU table shows the exact number of participants as well as the percentage of participants at each PCU Intensity Level according to the PCU Framework (section 3.2.1).

To review your group's available PCU results as a table:

  1. Click on the Table tab located to the right of the Graph tab listed under the name of the selected organization to view the data as a table.

Personal Computer Use (PCU) Framework

  • PCU Intensity Level 0 (Not True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 0 indicates that the participant does not feel comfortable or have the skill level to use computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 0 rely more on the use of overhead projectors, chalkboards, and/or traditional paper/pencil activities than using computers for conveying information or classroom management tasks.
  • PCU Intensity Level 1 (Not True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 1 indicates that the participant demonstrates little skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 1 may have a general awareness of various technology-related tools such as word processors, spreadsheets, or the internet, but generally are not using them.
  • PCU Intensity Level 2 (Not True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 2 indicates that the participant demonstrates little to moderate skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 2 may occasionally browse the internet, use email, or use a word processor program; yet, may not have the confidence or feel comfortable troubleshooting simple “technology” problems or glitches as they arise. At school, their use of computers may be limited to a grade book or attendance program.
  • PCU Intensity Level 3 (Somewhat True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 3 indicates that the participant demonstrates moderate skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 3 may begin to become “regular” users of selected applications such as the internet, email, or a word processor program. They may also feel comfortable troubleshooting simple “technology” problems such as rebooting a machine or hitting the “Back” button on an internet browser, but rely on mostly technology support staff or others to assist them with any troubleshooting issues.
  • PCU Intensity Level 4 (Somewhat True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 4 indicates that the participant demonstrates moderate to high skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 4 commonly use a broader range of software applications including multimedia (e.g., Microsoft Powerpoint, HyperStudio), spreadsheets, and simple database applications. They typically have the confidence and are able to troubleshoot simple hardware, software, and/or peripheral problems without assistance from technology support staff.
  • PCU Intensity Level 5 (Somewhat True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 5 indicates that the participant demonstrates high skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 5 are commonly able to use the computer to create their own web pages, produce sophisticated multimedia products, and/or effortlessly use common productivity applications (e.g., Microsoft Excel, FileMaker Pro), desktop publishing software, and web-based tools. They are also able to confidently troubleshoot most hardware, software, and/or peripheral problems without assistance from technology support staff.
  • PCU Intensity Level 6 (Very True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 6 indicates that the participant demonstrates high to extremely high skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 6 are sophisticated in the use of most, if not all, multimedia, productivity, desktop publishing, and web-based applications. They typically serve as “troubleshooters” for others in need of assistance and sometimes seek certification for achieving selected technology-related skills.
  • PCU Intensity Level 7 (Very True of Me Now): A PCU Intensity Level 7 indicates that the participant demonstrates extremely high skill level with using computers for personal use. Participants at Intensity Level 7 are expert computer users, troubleshooters, and/or technology mentors. They typically are involved in training others on any technology-related task and are usually involved in selected support groups from around the world that allow them access to answers for all technology-based inquiries they may have.

Current Instructional Practices (CIP) Results

The CIP link on the Review Group Data Menu loads available Current Instructional Practices (CIP) data according to the currently-selected organization and survey period. The Current Instructional Practices (CIP) profi le reveals each participant’s support for or implementation of instructional practices consistent with a learner-based curriculum design (e.g., learning materials determined by the problem areas under investigation, multiple assessment strategies integrated authentically throughout the curriculum, teacher as colearner/facilitator, focus on learner-based questions).

CIP data will automatically load in Graph format.

The CIP graph is a bar graph showing the number of participants at each CIP Intensity Level according to the CIP Framework (section 3.3.1). Both the median and mode CIP results are reported below the graph.

To review your group's available CIP results as a graph:

  1. Click on the CIP link from the Review Group Data Menu to view the data as a graph.

You may need more specific data than is available by simply reviewing a bar graph. For this instance, CIP data is also available in Table format. The CIP table shows the exact number of participants as well as the percentage of participants at each CIP Intensity Level according to the CIP Framework (section 3.3.1).

To review your group's available CIP results as a table:

  1. Click on the Table tab located to the right of the Graph tab listed under the name of the selected organization to view the data as a table.

Current Instructional Practices (CIP) Framework

CIP Intensity Level 0 (Not True of Me Now): A CIP Intensity Level 0 indicates that one or more questionnaire statements were not applicable to the participant’s current instructional practices.

  • CIP Intensity Level 1 (Not True of Me Now): At a CIP Intensity Level 1, the participant’s current instructional practices align exclusively with a subject-matter based approach to teaching and learning. Teaching strategies tend to lean toward lectures and/or teacher-led presentations. The use of curriculum materials aligned to specific content standards serves as the focus for student learning. Learning activities tend to be sequential and uniform for all students. Evaluation techniques focus on traditional measures such as essays, quizzes, short-answers, or true-false questions. Student projects tend to be teacher-directed in terms of identifying project outcomes as well as requirements for project completion.
  • CIP Intensity Level 2 (Not True of Me Now): Similar to a CIP Intensity Level 1, the participant at a CIP Intensity Level 2 supports instructional practices consistent with a subject-matter based approach to teaching and learning, but not at the same level of intensity or commitment. Teaching strategies tend to lean toward lectures and/or teacher-led presentations. The use of curriculum materials aligned to specific content standards serves as the focus for student learning. Learning activities tend to be sequential and uniform for all students. Evaluation techniques focus on traditional measures such as essays, quizzes, short-answers, or true-false questions. Student projects tend to be teacher-directed in terms of identifying project outcomes as well as requirements for project completion.
  • CIP Intensity Level 3 (Somewhat True of Me Now): At a CIP Intensity Level 3, the participant supports instructional practices aligned somewhat with a subject-matter based approach to teaching and learning—an approach characterized by sequential and uniform learning activities for all students, teacher-directed presentations, and/or the use of traditional evaluation techniques. However, the participant may also support the use of student-directed projects that provide opportunities for students to determine the “look and feel” of a final product based on specific content standards.
  • CIP Intensity Level 4 (Somewhat True of Me Now): At a CIP Intensity Level 4, the participant may feel comfortable supporting or implementing either a subject-matter or learning-based approach to instruction based on the content being addressed. In a subject- matter based approach, learning activities tend to be sequential, student projects tend to be uniform for all students, the use of lectures and/or teacher-directed presentations are the norm as well as traditional evaluation strategies. In a learner-based approach, learning activities are diversified and based mostly on student questions, the teacher serves more as a co-learner or facilitator in the classroom, student projects are primarily student- directed, and the use of alternative assessment strategies including performance-based assessments, peer reviews, and student reflections are the norm.
  • CIP Intensity Level 5 (Somewhat True of Me Now): At a CIP Intensity Level 5, the participant’s instructional practices tend to lean more toward a learner-based approach. The essential content embedded in the standards emerges based on students “need to know” as they attempt to research and solve issues of importance to them using critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The types of learning activities and teaching strategies used in the learning environment are diversified and driven by student questions. Both students and teachers are involved in devising appropriate assessment instruments (e.g., performance- based, journals, peer reviews, self-reflections) by which student performance will be assessed. However, the use of teacher-directed activities (e.g., lectures, presentations, teacher-directed projects) may surface based on the nature of the content being addressed and at the desired level of student cognition.
  • CIP Intensity Level 6 (Very True of Me Now): Similar to a CIP Intensity Level 7, the participant at a CIP Intensity Level 6 supports instructional practices consistent with a learner-based approach, but not at the same level of intensity or commitment. The essential content embedded in the standards emerges based on students “need to know” as they attempt to research and solve issues of importance to them using critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The types of learning activities and teaching strategies used in the learning environment are diversified and driven by student questions. Students, teacher/ facilitators, and occasionally parents are all involved in devising appropriate assessment instruments (e.g., performance-based, journals, peer reviews, self-reflections) by which student performance will be assessed.
  • CIP Intensity Level 7 (Very True of Me Now): At a CIP Intensity Level 7, the participant’s current instructional practices align exclusively with a learner-based approach to teaching and learning. The essential content embedded in the standards emerges based on students “need to know” as they attempt to research and solve issues of importance to them using critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The types of learning activities and teaching strategies used in the learning environment are diversified and driven by student questions. Students, teacher/facilitators, and occasionally parents are all involved in devising appropriate assessment instruments (e.g., performance-based, journals, peer reviews, self- reflections) by which student performance will be assessed.

Survey Type Results

The Survey Type link on the Review Group Data Menu loads participant data by LoTi Questionnaire version according to the currently-selected organization and survey period. There are six available LoTi Questionnaire versions that participants may have access to as part of your group: Inservice Teachers, Building Administrators, Media-Technology Specialists, Instructional Specialists, Preservice Teachers, and Higher Education Faculty.

Survey Type data will automatically load in Graph format. The Survey Type graph is a bar graph showing the number of participants that took the LoTi Questionnaire according to LoTi Questionnaire version (section 3.4.1).

To review your group's available Survey Type results as a graph:

  1. Click on the Survey Type link from the Review Group Data Menu to view the data as a graph.

You may need more specifi c data than is available by simply reviewing a bar graph. For this instance, Survey Type data is also available in Table format. The Survey Type table shows the exact number of participants as well as the percentage of participants that took the LoTi Questionnaire according to LoTi Questionnaire version (section 3.4.1). To review your group's available Survey Type results as a table:

  1. Click on the Table tab located to the right of the Graph tab listed under the name of the selected organization to view the data as a table.

LoTi Questionnaire Versions

  • Inservice Teacher LoTi Questionnaire: The Inservice Teacher Questionnaire should be taken by K-12 classroom teachers who teach in a standard classroom setting whereby they are directly providing instruction for students and are involved in classroom curriculum decision-making.
  • Instructional Specialist LoTi Questionnaire: The Instructional Specialist Questionnaire should be taken by teachers who are directly providing instruction for students and may be involved in curriculum decision-making, but not necessarily in a standard classroom setting. Examples of instructional specialists include math specialists, reading specialists, special education teachers, talented and gifted facilitators, and resource teachers.
  • Media-Technology Specialist LoTi Questionnaire: The Media Specialist Questionnaire should be taken by technology-related site specialists who may be involved instructionally with students, but whose primary functions include overseeing technology purchases, maintenance, staff technology support, and/or training at the school site. Examples of media specialists include librarians, technology coordinators, technology specialists, and media specialists.
  • Building Administrator LoTi Questionnaire: The Building Administrator Questionnaire should be taken by school site administrators who are involved in the curriculum decision- making process and/or technology acquisition process, but do not have direct instructional contact with students. Examples of building administrators include principals, vice principals, and curriculum coordinators.
  • Preservice Teacher LoTi Questionnaire: The Preservice Teacher Questionnaire should be taken by graduate level students involved in their state’s K-12 teacher preparation program.
  • Higher Education Faculty LoTi Questionnaire: The Higher Education Faculty Questionnaire should be taken by university level professors teaching courses of any subject.

Group Specific Demographic Results

The remaining links on the Review Group Data Menu load available data according to the group specific demographic questions asked at the beginning of the LoTi Questionnaire, and the currently selected organization and survey period. Some groups have customized demographic questions specially added by their group representative, but most groups select pre-survey questions from a list of 22 standardized demographic questions (section 3.5.1) to obtain local, regional, and national trends regarding technology implementation practices in schools.

Each of the specific demographic data links (e.g., Subject Specialty, Grade Level, Years Teaching) will automatically load in Graph format. Each demographic graph is a bar graph showing the number of participants who took the LoTi Questionnaire according to the categories comprising the corresponding demographic question (see section 3.5.1).

To review your group's available demographic results as a graph:

  1. Click on the link describing the desired demographic question (e.g., Subject Specialty, Grade Level, Years Teaching) from the Review Group Data Menu to view the data as a graph.

You may need more specific data than is available by simply reviewing a bar graph. For this instance, demographic data is also available in Table format. Each demographic table shows the exact number of participants as well as the percentage of particpants that took the LoTi Querstionnaire according to the categories comprising the corresponding demographic question (see section 3.5.1).

To review your group's available demographic results as a table:

  1. Click on the Table tab located to the right of the Graph tab listed under the name of the selected organization to view the data as a table.

Nationally-Collected LoTi Demographic Data

Data from 22 demographic questions can be collected as part of the LoTi Questionnaire to obtain local, regional, and national trends regarding technology implementation practices in schools.

Provided below is a listing of those standard 22 demographic questions.

Subject Specialty: Which category best describes your primary subject/specialty?

  • Humanities (e.g., Language Arts, Fine Arts, Theatrical Arts, Social Studies)
  • Sciences (e.g., Physical Science, Chemistry, Health Science)
  • Mathematics (e.g., Geometry, Algebra, Statistics)
  • Other (e.g., Physical Education, Industrial Technology, Administration, Elementary, Other Electives)

Grade Level: Which category best describes your primary grade level?

  • Elementary Grades (PreK-Grade 2, PreK-Grade 5, PreK-Grade 6, PreK-Grade 8, Grade 3-5)
  • Intermediate Grades (Grade 6-8, Grade 6-9, Grade 7-8)
  • Secondary Grades (Grade 9-12, Grade 10-12)
  • All Grade Levels (PreK-Grade 12)

Years Teaching: How many years of experience do you have in education?

  • Less than Five Years
  • Five to Nine Years
  • Ten to Twenty Years
  • More than Twenty Years

Age: What is your age group?

  • Twenty-one to Thirty
  • Thirty-one to Forty
  • Forty-one to Fifty
  • Over Fifty

Gender: What is your gender?

  • Female
  • Male

Technology Relevance: Do you feel like technology is relevant to your instructional setting?

  • Yes
  • No

Highest Level Of Education: What is your highest level of education?

  • Bachelor’s Degree
  • Master’s Degree
  • Educational Specialist Degree
  • Doctoral Degree

Number Of Classroom Computers: How many computers do you have for instructional use in your classroom?

  • None
  • One to Two
  • Three to Five
  • More than Five

Classroom Internet Connection: Do you have an internet connection in your classroom?

  • Yes
  • No

Educator Computer Frequency: Approximately how often do you use computers to do your job as an educator?

  • Daily
  • A Few Times a Week
  • A Few Times a Month
  • A Few Times a Year

Student Computer Frequency: Approximately how often do students use computers in your instructional setting?

  • Daily
  • A Few Times a Week
  • A Few Times a Month
  • A Few Times a Year

Home Computer Use: Do you have a personal computer at home?

  • Yes
  • No

Home Internet Connection: Do you have an internet connection at home?

  • Yes
  • No

Hours Of Technology Training: How many hours of technology-related training have you received over the past five years?

  • Less than Ten Hours
  • Eleven to Twenty Hours
  • Twenty-one to Thirty Hours
  • More than Thirty Hours

Content Of Technology Training: Which statement best describes the content of your technology-related training?

  • No Training
  • Mostly technology skills training (e.g., training on software applications, the internet, troubleshoot hardware)
  • Mostly curriculum integration training (e.g., how technology can be effectively integrated in the classroom,
  • A combination of technology skills and curriculum integration training

Guidance For Technology Integration: From which individual(s) do you mostly seek primary guidance, information, inspiration, and/or direction relating to the integration of technology in your instructional setting?

  • Students
  • Classroom Teachers (e.g., Other Colleagues, Mentors, Peer Coaches)
  • School/District Specialists (e.g., Media/Technology Specialist, Instructional Specialist)
  • Other (e.g., Building Administrator, College Professor, Vendor)

Guidance For Performance Based Practices: From which individual(s) do you mostly seek primary guidance, information, inspiration, and/or direction relating to the integration of performance-based practices in your instructional setting?

  • Students
  • Classroom Teachers (e.g., Other Colleagues, Mentors, Peer Coaches)
  • School/District Specialists (e.g., Media/Technology Specialist, Instructional Specialist)
  • Other (e.g., Building Administrator, College Professor, Vendor)

Greatest Obstacle: What do you perceive as your greatest obstacle to further using technology in your instructional setting?

  • Access to Technology
  • Time to Learn, Practice, and Plan
  • Other Priorities (e.g., Statewide Testing, New Textbook Adoptions)
  • Lack of Staff Development Opportunities

Technology Sharing Sessions: Do you participate in formal or informal technology sharing sessions, such as faculty meetings, inservice training, lunchtime discussions, before or after school meetings, or common preparation time within your instructional setting?

  • Yes
  • No

Number Of Technology Conferences: How many national, regional, or local technology conferences have you attended over the past five years?

  • None
  • One to Two
  • Three to Five
  • More than Five

Specific Technology Trainings: Have you successfully completed a specific technology training program over the past five years (e.g., In-Tech Training, Georgia Learning Connection Training, ELITE Training, WebTech Training, INTEL Training, WebQuest Training)?

  • Yes
  • No

Grant Participation: Are you taking this questionnaire as part of a state or federal grant requirement (e.g., No Child Left Behind (NCLB), PT3, STaR-W, ACE+)?

  • Yes
  • No

Chapter Four: Generate Reports Menu

The Generate Reports Menu was designed to easily create customized LoTi Technology Use Profiles of your group's data at any time your LoTi Lounge account is open. Using the Generate Reports Menu, survey administrators can generate LoTi Technology Use Profile reports for single schools, entire school districts, or entire groups either individually (one at a time) or for the whole group at once according to several custom report options. Chapter Four explores the specific items on the Generate Reports Menu.

LoTi Technology Use Profiles

The LoTi Technology Use Profile was designed to explore the current role of technology use in the classroom by measuring three key areas: (1) classroom teachers’ Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi), (2) Personal Computer Use (PCU), and (3) Current Instructional Practices (CIP). The LoTi Profile portion assesses classroom teachers’ current Level of Teaching Innovation based on the Level of Teaching Innovation (LoTi) Framework (section 3.1.1) developed by Dr. Christopher Moersch; the PCU Profile portion assesses classroom teachers’ comfort and skill level with using a personal computer according to the Personal Computer Use (PCU) Framework (section 3.2.1); and the CIP Profile portion assesses classroom teachers’ current instructional practices relating to a subject-matter versus a learner-based curriculum approach according to the Current Instructional Practices (CIP) Framework (section 3.3.1).

LoTi Technology Use Profiles provide schools with valid assessment data needed to develop an action plan to raise their current Level of Teaching Innovation in the classroom. LoTi Technology Use Profiles:

  • enable school systems to track their progress toward reaching the national “Target Technology” level;
  • provide schools with a data-driven approach to instructional computing decision-making at the site level;
  • create an accountability mechanism for schools to justify added funding for instructional computing;
  • empower school systems to assess changes in classroom teacher’s instructional practices relating to the use of computers;
  • allow school systems to effectively manage the efficient use of district, state, and federal funds for the procurement of hardware, software, and staff development
  • provide recommendations for consolidating staff development offerings for instruction, technology, and assessment.

Groups taking the LoTi Questionnaire have previously had to wait until the entire group completed the questionnaire to receive LoTi Technology Use Profiles, but LoTi Profi ler now provides the ability for you to generate a LoTi Technology Use Profi le report any time that your group's LoTi Lounge account is active. You can also generate reports from previous survey periods containing your self-selected demographic data.

Generating a Standard Profile for the Selected Organization

When you click on the LoTi Technology Use Profi les table, the default choices selected will produce a standard LoTi Technology Use Profi le report which includes data from the currently-selected organization, during the currently-selected survey period, including all available demographic information.

To generate a standard LoTi Technology Use Profile for the selected organization:

  1. Click on the LoTi Technology Use Profi les link from the Generate Reports Menu.
  2. Select the organization and survey period for which you wish to obtain a LoTi Technology Use Profi le report using the pop-up lists at the top of the screen.
  3. Click on the "Generate Report" button.
  4. Your LoTi Technology Use Profile will be generated on the screen. You can click on the Next button to view each page of the report online or you can click on the Save as PDF link to save the file in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format for download.
  5. Once the ".pdf" file has been created, LoTi Profiler will return a screen that says LoTi Technology Use Profile Report Complete with a link for downloading the report. To download the report to your computer hard drive, click on the "Download PDF Report" button.

Generating Profiles for All Available Organizations

LoTi Profiler also offers the ability to generate a report for each organization in your group at once by making a single selection on the LoTi Technology Use Profi le page.

To generate a LoTi Technology Use Profile for all organizations in your group:

  1. From the LoTi Technology Use Profi les page, click on the radio button next to "All Available Organizations".
  2. Click on the "Generate Report" button.
  3. A new window will open with a window titled, Generate Multiple Reports. You will be presented with a list of all available organizations for which a LoTi Technology Use Profile will be generated once you begin the process.
  4. To start the report generation process from the Generate Multiple Reports window, click on the "Begin" button. The screen will continue to refresh with processing information so that you can monitor report progress throughout the process. When LoTi Technology Use Profile reports for all of your organizations have been completed, the screen will refresh with a message that says, Process Complete.
  5. To download your completed LoTi Technology Use Profiles, click on the provided hyperlink.

Note: The Generate Multiple Reports window must remain open for your reports to continue processing. If you wish to cancel the report creation process, simply close the Generate Multiple Reports window in your internet browser.

Note: All reports are provided in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (.pdf) and can be opened with a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available for free at Adobe's website.

Generating Profiles for a Customized Set of Organizations

Occasionally there is a need to generate LoTi Technology Use Profile reports for multiple, but not all, of the organizations in your group. To generate a LoTi Technology Use Profi le for only a customized set of organizations:

  1. From the LoTi Technology Use Profiles page, click on the triangle widget next to "Select Customized Organizations". A dialog box will appear that lists all organizations that are part of your group.
  2. Hold down the Command key (Macintosh) or "right-click" (Windows) and select each organization from the list for which you wish to have a LoTi Technology Use Profile report generated.
  3. Click on the "Generate Report" button.
  4. A new window will open with a window titled, Generate Multiple Reports. You will be presented with a list of the selected organizations only.
  5. Click on the "Begin" button. The screen will continue to refresh with processing information so that you can monitor report progress throughout the process. When the selected LoTi Technology Use Profi le reports have been completed, the screen will refresh with a message that says, Process Complete.
  6. To download your completed LoTi Technology Use Profi les, click on the provided hyperlink.

Note: All reports are provided in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (.pdf) and can be opened with a copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available for free at Adobe's website.

Note: The Generate Multiple Reports window must remain open for your reports to continue processing. If you wish to cancel the report creation process, simply close the Generate Multiple Reports window in your internet browser.

Generating a Profile Without Demographic Information

If you have no need to obtain available demographic information, you have the option to generate a LoTi Technology Use Profile report that excludes all collected demographic data.

To generate a LoTi Technology Use Profile without demographic information:

  1. From the LoTi Technology Use Profiles page, click on the radio button next to "Omit Demographics".
  2. Click on the "Generate Report" button.
  3. Your LoTi Technology Use Profile will be generated on the screen. You can click on the Next button to view each page of the report online or you can click on the Save as PDF link to save the file in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format for download.
  4. Once the ".pdf" file has been created, LoTi Profiler will return a screen that says LoTi Technology Use Profile Report Complete with a link for downloading the report. To download the report to your computer hard drive, click on the "Download PDF Report" button.

Generating a Profile with Customized Demographic Information

You may wish to obtain a LoTi Technology Use Profile report that includes some specific demographic data only.

To generate a LoTi Technology Use Profile without demographic information:

  1. From the LoTi Technology Use Profiles page, click on the triangle widget next to "Select Customized Demographics". A dialog box will appear that lists all organizations that are part of your group.
  2. Hold down the Command key (Macintosh) or "right-click" (Windows) and select each demographic category from the list that you wish to have included in the LoTi Technology Use Profile report.
  3. . Click on the "Generate Report" button.
  4. Your LoTi Technology Use Profile will be generated on the screen. You can click on the Next button to view each page of the report online or you can click on the Save as PDF link to save the file in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format for download.
  5. Once the ".pdf" file has been created, LoTi Profiler will return a screen that says LoTi Technology Use Profile Report Complete with a link for downloading the report. To download the report to your computer hard drive, click on the "Download PDF Report" button.

Chapter Five: Interpreting LoTi Technology Use Profiles

After assessing the educators in your group and generating LoTi Technology Use Profiles, the next step is to interpret the results and plan effective staff development opportunities to raise the overall Level of Teaching Innovation. Chapter Five examines the types of data generated from the different sections of the LoTi Technology Use Profile and strategies for interpreting the results.

Interpreting Your Profile

Interpreting the data in a LoTi Technology Use Profile report extends beyond a cursory glance of the various graphs and tables included in the document. The key is determining patterns in the data that will lead to the implementation of a successful action plan. As previously mentioned in early chapters, the standard LoTi Technology Use Profile provides a summary of three key indicators influencing technology use practices in the classroom: Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi), Personal Computer Use (PCU) ,and Current Instructional Practices (CIP). A complete explanation of the intensity levels associated with each of these constructs is included in Chapter Three.

It is pivotal that these constructs be viewed in combination with one another rather than as isolated entities. The reason is because the LoTi Levels are influenced by a combination of the staff’s PCU (Personal Computer Use) and CIP (Current Instructional Practices). For example, if a campus' "average" LoTi score is LoTi Level 2 (Exploration), the "average" PCU Intensity Level is 4 or 5, and the "average" CIP Intensity Level is 1 or 2, the resulting analysis tells you several things:

1. The teachers' relatively high comfort level with using computers for personal use (PCU) is not preventing the staff from moving to a higher LoTi Level; meaning, the issue of relatively low level technology implementation does not appear to be the product of the teachers' lack of proficiency with electronic technologies. 2. The teachers' relatively low CIP (meaning a focus on a conventional/traditional approach to teaching) is, in effect, impacting their ability to move to a higher Level of Teaching Innovation because by definition a LoTi Level 2 represents classrooms that are using technology at the lower range of Bloom's Taxonomy (i.e., Knowledge/ Comprehension).

Conversely, a campus with an "average" LoTi score at LoTi Level 2 (Exploration), an "average" PCU Intensity Level that is 1 or 2, and an "average" CIP Intensity Level that is 4 or 5, reveals the following:

  1. The teachers' relatively low comfort level with using computers for personal use (PCU) may be preventing them from moving to a higher LoTi Level because the lack of competency with using different software, hardware, and web-based applications may (1) prevent staff from using them with students at the higher LoTi Levels and (2) result in staff using the technology superficially such as a content review station for students.
  2. The teachers' relatively high CIP (meaning a focus on a inquiry-based, approach to teaching) is not impacting the current LoTi Level because pedagogical attributes such as inquiry-based instruction, constructivist teaching practices, and complex thinking strategies are all associated with the higher levels of technology implementation.

It is essential when examining these patterns in your LoTi data that you do not draw conclusions in a vacuum. A relatively low LoTi Level may be due to environmental variables not included in the LoTi Technology Use Profile such as an inadequate technology infrastructure on the campus, a focus on high-stakes testing and NCLB requirements that often lead to dogmatic and didactic teaching and learning practices, high student mobility patterns, current curriculum initiatives, and statewide student achievement scores. The LoTi Technology Use Profile report itself may also be suspect of any of the following variables not appearing in the reports:

  1. A high influx of new teachers into the school
  2. A relatively low percentage turnout of participants (e.g., less than 50%)
  3. A lack of candor or honesty when responding to each survey statement
  4. A high turnover rate within the teaching staff

Understanding Each LoTi Level

In 1994, Dr. Christopher Moersch developed the Levels of Technology Implementation (LoTi) scale in an effort to accurately measure authentic classroom technology use. This scale focuses on the use of technology as an interactive learning medium because this particular component has the greatest and lasting impact on classroom pedagogy and is the most difficult to implement and assess. The challenge is not merely to use technology to achieve isolated tasks (e.g., word processing a research paper, creating a multimedia slide show, browsing the Internet), but rather to integrate technology in an exemplary manner that supports purposeful problem-solving, performance-based assessment practices, and experiential learning-all vital characteristics of the Target Technology level established by ISTE’s NETS (National Education Technology Standards) and TSSA (Technology Standards for School Administrators).

The following extended descriptions of each level of the LoTi Framework offer classroom observations and teacher comments that you might recognize from educators at the corresponding LoTi Level.


LoTi Level 0: Non-use

"Are cobwebs forming around your classroom computer?"

Description:

The teacher has a perceived lack of access to technology based tools or a lack of time to pursue electronic technology implementation. Existing technology is predominately text-based. (e.g., worksheets, chalkboard, and overhead projector).

Classroom Observations:

  • There is no visible evidence of computer access in the classroom.
  • Classroom computers sit idle during the instructional day.

Teacher Comments:

  • I really don’t have the time to deal with computers anyway.
  • They are still figuring out a way to get me hooked up to the Internet. I can’t start using this stuff until I know that I am connected.
  • Using computers is the least of my problems this semester. Have you seen my class enrollment?
  • Using computers gets in the way of what I am supposed to be doing.
  • My computer crashed and burned on me a few years ago. I am still waiting for someone to fix it.



LoTi Level 1: Awareness

"Who’s using the computers? The teacher or the students?"

Description:

The use of computers is generally one step removed from the classroom teacher (e.g., integrated learning system labs, special computer based pull-out programs, computer literacy classes, central word processing labs). Computer- based applications have little or no relevance to the individual teacher’s operational curriculum.

Classroom Observations:

  • Available classroom computer(s) are used exclusively for teacher productivity (e.g., email, word processing, grading programs).
  • Multimedia applications (including web-based) are used to embellish classroom lectures or teacher presentations.
  • Curriculum management tools are used extensively to generate standards-driven lesson plans.
  • Computer use serves as a reward station or as a digital babysitter.

Teacher Comments:

  • This grading program is fabulous. I can generate an average for each student or print out any outstanding assignment. Computers are great!
  • I basically send my kids to the computer lab where they learn how to use it. The kids love it.
  • I designed my own web-page so that students can view their weekly assignments.
  • My students go to the lab each Tuesday. This frees me to catch up on my grades or meet with parents.
  • Our staff attends a bimonthly computer camp with our technology coordinator. This month we are learning how to design a web page. I’m hoping that I can put all of my recipes on this page. That would be great!



LoTi Level 2: Exploration

"Is the focus more on computer use or on the critical content?"

Description:

Technology-based tools generally serve as a supplement to the existing instructional program (e.g., tutorials, educational games, simulations). The electronic technology is employed either as extension activities or as enrichment exercises to the instructional program and generally reinforces lower cognitive skill development (e.g., knowledge, comprehension, application).

Classroom Observations:

  • Student projects (e.g., designing web pages, research via the Internet, and creating multimedia presentations) focus on lower levels of student cognition (e.g., creating a web page to learn more about whale species).
  • There is greater emphasis on the technology rather than on the critical content (e.g., "My students’ project was to create a WebQuest using Inspiration and HyperStudio. The topic was the California Gold Rush.")
  • Students were gathering weather data and keyboarding the information into a wide-area network database (e.g., GLOBE project).

Teacher Comments:

  • My students have built some very sophisticated and impressive multimedia applications during the year.
  • When students finish their packets early, they often go back to the computers and practice their computer skills.
  • My students created our school’s web page.
  • My kids graphed some data from an AIMS activity last week. They love the way the graphs look on the screen.
  • We are running a school-wide contest on the best HyperStudio presentation this month.

LoTi Level 3: Infusion

"Is higher-order thinking and problem solving linked to critical content the focus of computer use?"

Description:

Technology-based tools including databases, spreadsheet and graphing packages, multimedia and desktop publishing applications, and Internet use augment selected instructional events (e.g., science kit experiment using spreadsheets/ graphs to analyze results, telecommunications activity involving data sharing among schools). Though the learning activity may or may not be perceived as authentic by the student, emphasis is, nonetheless, placed on higher levels of cognitive processing (e.g., analysis, synthesis, evaluation).

Classroom Observations:

  • Student use of tool-based applications such as spreadsheets/ graphing, concept-mapping, and databases is used primarily for analyzing data, making inferences, and drawing conclusions from an investigation or related scientific inquiry.
  • Students are involved with different forms of “Web Quest” projects that require students to research information, draw conclusions from their research, and either post them to a web page or incorporate them into some form of multimedia presentation.
  • Students use the web for research purposes or interact with selected software applications that require them to take a position or role play an issue (e.g., Tom Snyder Productions' "Decisions, Decisions").

Teacher Comments:

  • My students just completed a research project investigating why many middle school students never use the school’s drinking fountains.
  • I designed a culminating performance task for my 4th grade students that required them to conduct web-based research and related data gathering to support their predictions for the upcoming Presidential election.

LoTi Level 4a: Integration (Mechanical)

"Do classroom management issues relating to authentic, problem-based learning impede your progress with this type of teaching and learning approach?"

Description:

Technology-based tools are integrated in a mechanical manner that provides rich context for students’ understanding of the pertinent concepts, themes, and processes. Heavy reliance is place on pre-packaged materials and outside interventions that aid the teacher in the daily operation of their instructional curriculum. Technology (e.g., multimedia telecommunications, databases spreadsheets, word processing) is perceived as a tool to identify and solve authentic problems perceived by the students as relating to an overall theme/ concept. Emphasis is placed on student action and issues resolution that require higher levels of student cognitive processing.

Classroom Observations:

  • Students designed a school-based information kiosk to assist their classmates with various “safety” issues including map directions to school based on the time of day, neighborhood watch sites, and “just-say-no” strategies to use with strangers. The information collected for the information kiosk was supplied from student- generated surveys, field investigations, and personal interviews.
  • Students organized a school fund-raiser to raise money for one of the international "solar cooker" societies based on their research, experimentation, and data gathering with homemade solar cookers.
  • Students created a travel brochure for families traveling within the state of Florida that included: (1) a guide for selecting the best modes of travel based on the time of year, (2) recommended lodging based on information collected from various travel sites, and (3) a listing of the best destination sites based on criteria established by the students.

Teacher Comments:

  • The creation of the information kiosk idea was based on an existing unit that I borrowed from one of the 5th grade teachers.
  • I used an existing design published by a software company that provided an easy way to design my culminating performance task and the student experiences leading up to the fund-raiser.
  • The travel brochure which we used as a part of the culminating performance task was developed by a consultant with assistance from the 4th grade teachers.

LoTi Level 4b: Integration (Routine)

"Is designing and managing student-based learning experiences using the available computers the most rewarding part of your work day?"

Description:

Teachers can readily create Level 4 integrated units with little intervention from outside resources. Technology-based tools are easily integrated in a routine manner that provides rich context for students/understanding of the pertinent concepts, themes, and processes. Technology (e.g., multimedia, telecommunications, databases, spreadsheets, word processing) is perceived as a tool to identify and solve authentic problems relating to an overall theme/concept.

Classroom Observations:

  • Based on the rise in student violence on campus, students prepared a multimedia presentation highlighting their recommended mediation strategies using data synthesized from school-wide surveys and from the Internet.
  • Students created a web site devoted to exploring solutions to the steady increase in solid wastes entering the local landfill.
  • Students prepared a multimedia presentation highlighting the misconceptions and omissions in history text books concerning the contributions of their specific ethnic group. Presentation was later burned onto a CD for submission to the various textbook publishers for consideration.
  • Students investigated options for salvaging the local "fish ponds" as a way of preserving their native Hawaiian culture. Students prepared a community campaign including the creation of a web-page to persuade the voters not to approve a local housing tract proposal that would jeopardize the integrity of these ancient fish ponds.

Teacher Comments:

  • Our student mediation unit was prompted by the recent rise in fights on campus. Many students expressed concern for their personal safety and the safety of others at school.
  • I first converted several digital images into a Power Point presentation to get my students thinking about the waste disposal issue and asking questions.
  • I presented students with an assignment to read different accounts of a historical event which later lead to a lively discussion on how history is presented in various textbooks.
  • We took the students on a field trip to a local fish pond to investigate the potential impact of the proposed housing development on the preservation of this ancient site.

LoTi Level 5: Expansion

"Are you ready to advance into uncharted areas of powerful teaching strategies linked to advanced technology use?"

Description:

Technology access is extended beyond the classroom. Classroom teachers actively elicit technology applications and networking from business enterprises, governmental agencies (e.g., contacting NASA to establish a link to an orbiting space shuttle via Internet), research institutions, and universities to expand student experiences directed at problem-solving, issues resolution, and student involvement surrounding a major theme/concept.

Classroom Observations:

  • Students created an actual online business venture involving cosmetics and jewelry as a culminating performance task in their marketing class.
  • Students started their online consumer awareness clearinghouse that provided up-to-date information on “best prices” for travel, goods and merchandise, and services based on data collected from their research and online surveys with other schools.
  • Using video cameras, NASA and NOAA images, and related weather and mapping data, students assisted a hiker in his goal to conquer the Continental Divide Trail from Mexico to Canada. Communicating via email, students were able to provide daily information on the best routes based on projected weather reports and various typographic information.

Teacher Comments:

  • Students got the idea for starting a business venture online after they read a series of

articles discussing the pros and cons of online businesses and their success rates.

  • It was amazing! Many of the students already knew how to use these Internet tools such as Any Forms and writing simple CGI scripts.
  • Assisting their hiker friend was the highlight of the day. Since we were limited on time in class, students did the majority of their research online at home.

LoTi Level 6: Refinement

"Have you reached the promise land involving the power and potential of instructional computing?"

Description:

Technology is perceived as a process, product (e.g., invention, patent, new software design), and tool toward students solving authentic problems related to an identified “real-world” problem or issue. Technology, in this context, provides a seamless medium for information queries, problem-solving, and/or product development. Students have ready access to and a complete understanding of a vast array of technology-based tools to accomplish any particular task.

Classroom Observations:

  • Students designed an interactive web site for bilingual children to expedite their English language proficiency. The site included options for real-time conversations, tutorial sessions, and bilingual online bulletin boards.
  • Students created a new type of housing design using some sophisticated CAD programs to improve the amount of heat transfer in future homes.

Teacher Comments:

  • Every student has access to computers, video cameras, scanners, Internet, and any other technology-based application at any time during the instructional day. Doesn’t everyone?
  • We have computers embedded in every desk and in every classroom on campus. Students can use them at any time.

Breaking Down the LoTi Levels By Instructional Practices

As individuals progress from one LoTi Level to the next, a corresponding series of changes to the instructional curriculum should be observed. The instructional focus shifts from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered orientation. The computer technology becomes employed as a tool to support and extend students' understanding of the pertinent concepts, processes, and themes using databases, telecommunications, the Internet, multimedia, and spreadsheet and graphing programs. Other elements of the curriculum including learning activities, instructional materials, and means of evaluation are also affected as one moves to higher levels of technology implementation. Traditional verbal and paper-and-pencil activities are gradually replaced by authentic hands-on inquiry related to a problem, issue, or theme. Heavy reliance on textbook and sequential instructional materials are replaced by extensive and diversified resources that are determined by the problem areas under study.

Traditional evaluation practices are supplanted by multiple assessment strategies that utilize portfolios, open-ended questions, self-analysis, and peer review.

Provided below is a conceptual framework that breaks down the LoTi Levels based on their pedagogical emphasis, technology focus, and instructional focus. This table can serve as a useful guide when interpreting LoTi Technology Use Profiles or approximating the LoTi level from a classroom observation, teacher-generated lesson plan, or teacher interview.

LoTi Level Pedagogical Emphasis Technology Focus Instructional Focus
0 Learner-centered or Teacher-centered
  • No technology use
  • Technology perceived as unrelated to student achievement
  • Environmental variables prevent technology use
  • Instructional approach either didactic or inquiry-based
  • Use of print materials is pervasive in the classroom
1 Teacher-centered
  • Technology is used mostly by teacher/facilitator
  • Computer serves as a reward station for non-content- related work
  • Teacher use of productivity tools
  • Instruction emphasizes information dissemination to students (e.g.,lecture)
  • Supports concept-attainment model of teaching
2 Teacher-centered
  • Student use of technology for ower cognitive skills
  • Pervasive use of student multimedia to present content understanding
  • Drill and practice; tutorial programs
  • Focus is strictly on content understanding
  • Emphasis on lower order thinking skills (i.e., knowledge, comprehension)
  • Student products emphasize "research and reporting"
3 Teacher-centered
  • Student use of technology for higher cognitive skills
  • Student use of web-based and non-web-based productivity tools (e.g.,spreadsheets, concept maps, databases, online surveys, online simulations)
  • Focus is on both the content and the process
  • Emphasis on higher order thinking skills (i.e., application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation)
  • Student products emphasize complex thinking strategies (e.g., problem-solving, decision-making, reasoning)
4a Student-centered
  • Student use of technology for higher cognitive skills
  • Student use of web-based and non-web-based productivity tools (e.g.,spreadsheets, concept maps, databases, online surveys, online simulations)
  • Focus is on applied learning to the real world
  • Student products are authentic, relevant and embed complex thinking strategies
  • Student-generated questions dictate the content, process, and product
  • Teacher experiences management concerns with pedagogy
4b Student-centered
  • Student use of technology for higher cognitive skills
  • Student use of web-based and non-web-based productivity tools (e.g.,spreadsheets, concept maps, databases, online surveys, online simulations)
  • Focus is on applied learning to the real world
  • Student products are authentic, relevant and embed complex thinking strategies
  • Student-generated questions dictate the content, process, and product
  • Teacher is within his/her comfort zone with pedagogy
5 Student-centered
  • Student use of technology for higher cognitive skills
  • Student use of web-based and non-web-based productivity tools (e.g.,spreadsheets, concept maps, databases, online surveys, online simulations)
  • Multiple technologies in use toward product completion
  • Focus is on applied learning to the real world
  • Student products are authentic, relevant and embed complex thinking strategies
  • Student-generated questions dictate the content, process, and product
  • Teacher is within his/her comfort zone with pedagogy
  • Two-way collaboration with community for student problem-solving
6 Student-centered
  • Student use of technology for higher cognitive skills
  • Student use of web-based and non-web-based productivity tools (e.g.,spreadsheets, concept maps, databases, online surveys, online simulations)
  • Multiple technologies in use toward product completion
  • No limit to technology availability or use
  • Technology perceived as a process, product, and tool
  • Focus is on applied learning to the real world
  • Student products are authentic, relevant and embed complex thinking strategies
  • Student-generated questions dictate the content, process, and product
  • Teacher is within his/her comfort zone with pedagogy
  • Two-way collaboration with community for student problem-solving

Next Steps Action Plans

Steven Covey says that to be successful you have to plan with the end in mind. Common wisdom says that to get good directions you have to know where you are now and where you are going. The Next Steps Action Plan is a process of utilizing current environmental data (standardized test scores, curriculum priorities, LoTi data, student attendance) to create a list of implementation action steps for a given time period. These steps should target the divergent instructional needs of the campus.

The process of creating a plan can either be an exercise in futility by filling out the blanks and creating a document that merely meets the requirements of document creation, or it can become the core of a vibrant change document.

The first step is determining who will complete the plan. The best plans are developed by a team of stakeholders who all feel safe to contribute concerns and possible solutions without fear of negative consequences. The team should reflect the instructional diversity of the staff, preferably from diverse positions, experiences and backgrounds. However it is vital that the principal be directly involved at all phases of the planning; research continually emphasizes the pivotal role of the building principal as the instructional leader who has the most direct impact on technology implementation on campus.

Once the development team has been chosen and a climate of safety has been created, the relevant data must be gathered, analyzed, and summarized. Often it is the role of one member to collect all of the state test data, but the list of concerns and barriers must be brainstormed from within the group. Each team member should be able to explain the relevant data to members outside of the group. To make the plan as effective as possible, the team should take the time to look at subset skills to specify the top two or three instructional skills to be addressed.

This same process needs to occur with the LoTi results. Looking at the teachers’ Current Instructional Practices (CIP) and Personal Computer Use (PCU) at each of the LoTi levels provides the opportunity to differentiate professional development interventions based on staff needs.

The subset skills, relevant district initiatives, LoTi results, and barriers to implementation lead directly to the creation of goals and objectives designed to address the instructional needs of the school’s student population. The more goals and objectives are clearly stated the more easily the resultant targeted activities can be written and the more likely they will be implemented.

For each objective the team needs to develop specific targeted activities. For each activity you need to list the following:

  • Who will be responsible?
  • How will it be paid for?
  • When will it be implemented (a timeline)?
  • What materials are needed?
  • What measurable outcomes can be expected?


Creating the Next Steps Action Plan should be a part of a building’s overall plan of improvement. The plan should address the needs and barriers as well as specific targeted activities aimed at both. The final part should be an evaluation at the end of the cycle to address which strategies have been successful before planning the next year of instructional improvement.

Personal tools